Buying or Selling Real Estate privately?
NOTE: the article below is general information and does not constitute legal advice. Please contact a real estate lawyer to ensure you are receiving advice that covers your particular situation.
From time to time, I will get a call from a potential buyer or a seller asking about the steps to complete their real estate transactions without the use of a real estate agent. My suggestion is to always sit down with a local real estate agent who knows your market and has the requisite skills to assist you with your transaction. One should aim to understand the services realtors provide; the value they add to the transaction and how this can help you in the long run. That being said, if you are absolutely certain that you are prepared to do without the services of a real estate agent, some general steps are outlined herein.
First, the buyer and seller would have to determine who is making the initial offer and thereby having their lawyer draft the agreement of purchase and sale. The lawyer will have a fee for this, usually based on time spent or they may have a set fee. If you work things out in advance, it can help simplify the real estate contract which may save you some money on legal fees. Remember, the lawyer is not and cannot play realtor. The lawyer is generally not going to visit the subject property or have much of an opinion about the true market value – this is the area of expertise of real estate agents. That being said, from a contract perspective, below is a general list of questions that we require from someone looking to have an agreement of purchase and sale drafted. Be advised that these are basic questions and that your transaction may differ and have additional moving pieces that need to be considered. For general information, this is what we would ask of the parties:
Agreement of Purchase and Sale (Private Questionnaire)
• What are the names of the buyer(s)? – Please provide full legal names as they are to go on the title.
• What are the names of the seller(s)? – Please provide full legal names as they are to go on the title.
• What is the address of the property? – Please include any parking/locker details, if any.
• What is the offer/purchase price?
• What is the amount of the deposit?
• Who is the deposit being paid to? – Usually, it is being paid to either the realty company or the seller’s lawyer, in trust. It is advised not to make a cheque directly payable to the seller.
• Who is making the offer (buyer or seller)?
• What is the irrevocability date?
In other words, how long does the other party have to accept your offer?
• What is the closing date?
• Which items are being purchased as a part of this transaction?
When in doubt, list it out. Usual items include a fridge, stove, washer, dryer, electric light fixtures etc.
• Are there any rental items on the property?
The buyer typically assumes these rental contracts.
• Is the property a single-family residential dwelling or is it a duplex/triplex/multi-unit. Please provide details.
• Are there any realtors involved in the transaction at all? If so, please provide their name and contact details.
• What type of conditions are you looking to include in the agreement?
Generally speaking, a buyer may want to make it conditional to financing or home inspection to name a few or possibly subject to the sale of an existing home or confirmation that home/fire insurance can be obtained by the buyer. Further details would be required.
• Are there any Tenants on the property? If so, are the tenancies being assumed? Please provide copies of the leases.
• What is the name and contact information for the lawyer representing the other party?
• Are there any other items you wish to share?
As you can see, there is a lot of information that needs to be gathered. Note that if there are any conditions included in the agreement of purchase and sale, they need to be drafted to meet the intentions of the buyer and seller. Further, the conditions also need to be addressed once they are satisfied by signing further documents/ schedules.
Another note is to make certain of which items are being kept by the buyer and which are going to be removed by the seller. Generally speaking, chattels do not form a part of the agreement unless specifically referenced as included. Chattels are items of personal property that are not ‘attached’ to the real estate such as washers, dryers, stove, tables, chairs and various other items that make up ‘stuff’ inside a house. On the other hand, items that attach to a building/house are generally known as fixtures. These items are known to be sold with the property unless specifically excluded. An example of a fixture may be a built-in workbench or a built-in wall safe. Though there is some grey area, one suggestion is that if it will cause damage to remove it from the property, it may be considered a fixture. This is the reason to work it out in the agreement and as usual, real estate lingo goes, ‘when in doubt, spell it out’. Not only will this avoid unpleasant surprises, but it will also assist with any potential litigation if a dispute arises.
There are a number of other items that need to be considered and clients (buyers or sellers) may require more contact with their real estate lawyer since they do not have the benefit of working with a real estate agent. The main message here is that if you’re going to decide not to proceed with the assistance of a realtor, be aware of your rights and speak to a real estate lawyer before signing anything.
VRS Law is a real estate law firm serving Kitchener, Waterloo, Cambridge, Guelph, and other areas west of the GTA. We offer assistance in buying, selling, refinancing along with other practice areas. If you have any questions about real estate lawyer Kitchener, give us a call!Read More
Disclaimer: Please note that opinions and information herein (and elsewhere on this website) is general information and is not to be considered legal advice. Please contact a Kitchener real estate lawyer for advice in relation to your specific scenario.
WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A STATUS CERTIFICATE
If you’ve come to this page while searching for information on a status certificate, it is likely that you are involved in purchasing a condominium either as a prospective buyer or a realtor. This package of documents shared by the condominium corporation is often the subject of many questions, deadlines and processes involving a number of parties. As a real estate lawyer in Kitchener, I see status certificates as a critical document that requires a review. It provides very important information on a variety of things some of which are listed below.
What is a status certificate, what does it include?
In exchange for a fee ($ 100 +), a prospective buyer is provided a package of documents referred to as the status certificate. This contains documents including the condominium by-laws, condominium declaration, the budget, and rules of the condominium corporation and a summary document. Real estate agents will often (highly suggested) make their client’s offer conditional on a review of a status certificate by a lawyer. Review of these documents allows the buyer to cross-check the information provided by the seller. For example, if the seller indicates a certain amount for monthly common expenses and the status shows a higher amount (perhaps due to a recent increase in condominium fees), the buyer can be better prepared for the true costs involved.
What are the risks in NOT reviewing a status?
There are many risks. As a starting point, you do not have a financial snapshot of the condominium and its affairs. The status will reveal if the condominium corporation is involved in any lawsuits or other legal proceedings. A lawsuit may very well impact the finances of the corporation so additional details may need to be explored. It will also disclose whether the current owner is up to date in paying the common elements (maintenance fees as it is sometimes referred to as) and whether the condominium corporation has placed any liens on the property due to arrears of such payments or unauthorized changes to the unit. Certainly, one would want to know this information upfront and make an informed decision.
What other documents are included in a status?
The status certificate would also include a reserve fund study. This is a study required to be completed under the governing legislation and is prepared in conjunction by engineers and accountants. Every few years, a certified professional (engineer) is required to attend provide an opinion on the major components to see which items require repair and replacement. As a result of the report, the corporation is not only able to budget but also to project how much money is to be allocated into a reserve fund (sort of like a long term savings account) for the years to come. The general thought is that more is better!
Follow the rules
Although most clients understand the concept that purchase of a condominium would come with certain rules, it is important to review them. Are there restrictions on pets? Short-term rentals (Airbnb) or student rental, parking etc. When it comes to these rules, a prospective buyer should understand them in advance of the purchase.
What else would one find out?
You may get some sense into how many units are rentals rather than being owner-occupied. This could certainly impact a potential purchase decision. You also want to know which utilities, if any, are covered by the monthly common expenses. More and more utilities now, especially in newer condominiums are being separately metered which means you would pay fees for these utilities on top. Understanding this allows will allow one to budget properly. Also, if the condominium is facing issues or in bad financial shape, a special assessment may be imposed on the unit owners. This is where additional fees may be required from unit owners to cover some type of shortfall. Very important to know this upfront.
Remember, there is no magic wand one can wave to know if it’s a ‘good purchase or not’ but reviewing this document can give some insight into what you are getting into. The point is, there’s a lot involved and it is best to have the status certificate reviewed and provide adequate time to conduct the review.
VRS Law is a Kitchener-Waterloo Law firm and assists clients purchasing, selling, refinancing real estate property including condominiums which require the review of status certificates. We also help clients with their estate planning and estate administration needs. In other words, we assist those looking to prepare their wills, power of attorneys and receive assistance with probate or executor related services.
If you are buying a newly built real estate property, it is important to review your particulars with a lawyer in advance of closing so you understand not only your agreement and obligations within, but also the HST-related consequences.Read More
Condominium Law: Buying real estate in Kitchener-Waterloo and surrounding regions
It is interesting to see how many people tend to gravitate towards purchasing a condominium as opposed to a semi-detached or detached home. Whether you have just started shopping for real estate or have already signed an Agreement of Purchase and Sale, one thing is for sure: as a potential buyer, it is a good idea to understand what it is that you are buying, especially when it comes to buying into something like the condominium, knowing condominimum law it very important.
It is no surprise that condominiums are a popular choice for those looking to get into the real estate market. This could be due to a variety of factors such as affordability (thanks to the sky-rocketing real estate prices over the last few years), availability or simply being able to ditch your shovel and lawnmower by having a property management company handle the exterior maintenance of the property. In our real estate law practice, we often close transactions involving condominiums and deal with buyers from all walks of life. However, many people buying a condominium for the first time do not know what is generally involved and what the key attributes of this form of ownership are. As a result, we share some tidbits:
Source of Condominium Law:
It is the Condominium Act, 1998 which governs condominium corporations and under which we find details with respect to how to create a condominium, the structure involved, the rules and regulations, the requirements with respect to owners, tenants, management and many other facets. The main documents that govern the condominium are the declaration and description, the by-laws, and the rules.
In a sense, when you are buying a condominium, you are buying a form of legal ownership in your unit along with an undivided interest in the common elements. This means that typically, the portion of your unit entitles you to exclusive use and ownership. This use is limited within the boundaries of this unit. Your condominium also comprises of areas known as common elements which may include lobby areas, garage for parking, facilities shared between the unit owners such as a gym, party room and the like. These areas may be said to be owned in a communal manner for use of all of the unit owners.
Boundaries and Common Expenses
You may wonder exactly what you own within the condominium complex. To find that out, one must reference the declaration and relevant condominium documents to know the boundaries of their units and the areas that make up the common elements. The declaration will also tell you the percentage of maintenance fees or common expenses that each unit owner is responsible for. It is important to note that in many condominiums, a unit owner will pay for his or her pro- rated share of the expenses paid to maintain the common elements. This could include things like paying for maintenance, development, security, insurance, etc. Although it may sound obvious but generally, the more amenities a condominium has, the more likely it is to have higher common expenses. Typically, a high-rise will have many common element areas whereas a townhouse complex is likely to have less. The real estate scene in Kitchener-Waterloo appears to have many condominiums set up as townhouses and less high-rise buildings which are more commonly seen in and around Toronto. However, as we can see with the development projects that have started as well as those that are in the pipeline, the local skyline is set to adjust even more.
Some condominiums may have parking, storage and lockers set up as separate units just like the physical space in which the buyer is going to own. However, in other condominiums, these areas may be designated as exclusive use for the by virtue of the buyer’s ownership of the unit.
There are multiple types of condominiums that one may come across. You may have a common elements condominium, vacant land condominiums, standard condominiums, phased condominiums etc. They all derive their authority from the Condominium Act, 1998.
Who runs this operation?
Typically, a Board of Directors is elected which makes decisions related to operations as well as money management. The Board may hire a management company to see the day-to-day operations. Some smaller condominiums may not employ a property manager due to budgetary constraints and choose to be more hands on.
The Board also plays a role in ensuring compliance of the rules and regulations in a condominium with the underlying idea being that through collective endeavour, all owners contribute to a good overall standard. The rules and regulations should be reviewed to ensure that you are comfortable with them and to identify any lifestyle concerns.
What is a Status Certificate?
Imagine you were buying shares of a company (publicly listed or private), would you want to know its’ financial merits and ensure it is not involved in any legal trouble? If the answer is yes, one may want to consider making an offer conditional to review of a status certificate by a lawyer for 3-5 days from receipt by the buyer. Either party (buyer or seller – usually with the help of the property manager or their respective real estate agent) can order the status certificate.
In a nutshell, it provides a snapshot of the legal and financial health of the Condominium Corporation. It is often a very large document consisting of multiple components some of which have been mentioned above. It will tell us whether the condominium is facing major financial challenges (i.e. have there been any special assessments imposed recently on top of the current common expenses – which means more money out of your pocket as the potential buyer). It will also disclose if there are any lawsuits that have been filed or any other litigation that the condominium is involved in and whether there is adequate insurance in place.
Further, it will also show details with respect to what kind of money is available for major repairs and replacements. If the condominium you’re buying into is dipping into the negative, it may lead to concerns for the possibility of higher common expenses. This is where the reserve fund study comes in which provides an indication from another professional (engineers) on the likelihood of major repairs. It’s a pretty good idea to let a lawyer look at this before you sign off on the dotted line.
All in all, becoming a homeowner (whether owning a condominium or a house) is major step. It is a good idea to know what it is that you’re buying and have an understanding of what is involved. Be sure to consult a professional to guide you every step of the way. For further questions about your real estate transaction, contact a Kitchener-Waterloo real estate lawyer.
Please note all information shared herein is general information and not legal advice for which a lawyer must be retained. For more information about buying, selling or refinancing real estate in Kitchener-Waterloo or beyond, give us a call.
Although buying a real estate property, in Kitchener, Waterloo or Cambridge regions or beyond involves multiple steps, selling your real estate also requires you to be involved and organized to ensure that your lawyer has all the requisite information to complete the transaction.
If you decide to retain VRS Law to act on your behalf on the sale of your property, here is an example of what we may seek to obtain from you immediately in order to ensure a smooth closing:
☐ 1. Fax or e-mail
If you or your real estate representative has not already done so, we will need you to fax or email us a copy of the offer or the agreement of purchase and sale.
Please also email us all of your contact information including all cell phone numbers and all email addresses.
☐ 2. Mortgage pay-out statement
As part of the closing process, it is our job to ensure that we obtain an up to date pay-out statement from your bank or mortgage company so that we may pay-out your mortgage from the sale proceeds and discharge the mortgage from the title of your home, which is currently registered as a lien.
Accordingly, to ensure that we have accurate information such as an account number or a mortgage loan number when we write to your bank for a discharge statement, we will need you to fax or email us a copy of your most recent mortgage statement for references purposes. (If you cannot find one, just provide us with a contact name and phone number of your banker).
☐ 3. Property tax bill
We also need to adjust for your property taxes, especially if you have prepaid your taxes for the year or if you have paid taxes for a time period past the closing date.
Accordingly, please fax us or email your most recent property tax bill.
NOTE: If you are currently on a pre-authorized payment plan with the City whereby they automatically debit your bank account for your tax installments, monthly or otherwise, you will need to cancel this at the appropriate time to avoid any additional charges.
☐ 4. Condo fees
If the property you are selling is a condominium unit, we will also be adjusting for your monthly common expense payment with the buyers.
However, as in the case of property taxes, if you have arranged to pay your maintenance fees on a pre-authorized payment basis, you will need to cancel this immediately. (In case you have given post-dated cheques to the Management Office, you will need to get these cheques back).
☐ 5. Contact utilities
You will need to contact the utility companies, such as hydro, water and gas departments to give them your forwarding address so that they may send you the final bill after the meter reading on the closing date.
☐ 6. Appointment to see us
Our office will be setting up an appointment with you – usually a few days before the closing date in order to attend at our office to review and sign all closing documents.
It is important to note that all those who are currently on the title to the home must come in to sign.
Furthermore, if only one of the spouses is the owner and both spouses reside in this property, then the non-owner spouse must also come in to our office to sign.
Finally, if one or all of the owners are not present to sign these documents and an individual under a Power of Attorney will be attending our office for signing, please provide us with the original copy of this Power of Attorney along with the contact information of the Attorney. For more information on this issue, please contact us.
☐ 7. Meeting before closing
It is typical for us to meet 1-2 days before the actual closing date.
Please remember to bring one (1) set of keys to the property with you to the meeting to leave with us so that we may, in turn, forward it to the buyer’s lawyer on closing.
Also, you will also need to bring two (2) pieces of identification.
☐ 8. Pick up funds
Once we have received the closing funds from the buyer’s lawyer on the closing day, we will electronically message the deed to the property to the other lawyer. It is only when he or she has registered this deed in the buyer’s name can we then consider this transaction as having closed.
And once the deal has closed, we will notify you immediately so that you may attend at our office to pick up the balance of the closing funds, which will be in the form of a certified cheque or a bank draft.
You may provide us with a VOID cheque from a major financial institution so we can directly deposit the funds to you after closing is complete. This usually takes place the day of closing or the morning of the following business day.Read More